India has published a list which effectively strips some four million people in the north-eastern state of Assam of their citizenship.
The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a list of people who can prove they came to the state by March 24, 1971, a day before Bangladesh declared independence.
India says the process is to root out hordes of illegal Bangladeshi migrants.
But it has sparked fears of a witch hunt against Assam’s ethnic minorities.
Fearing violence, officials say that no-one will face immediate deportation.
They say that a lengthy appeal process will be available to all – even if it means millions of families will live in limbo until they get a final decision on their legal status.